For my digital history project I am studying the history of the Interstate Highway System because I want to find out how it impacted minority communities in industrial cities, such as Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland, to understand why these cities still struggle in terms of economic and social inequality and reflect on the lessons learned from the expansion of this highway system.
The construction of the Interstate Highway system in the 1950s has contributed to social and economic inequality amongst communities in formerly industrial cities, as these highways cut off access to critical resources and services leading to more economic insecurity.
- An Act To amend the Federal-Aid Highway Acts of 1956 and 1958 to make certain adjustments in the Federal-aid highway program, and for other purposes. U.S. Statutes at Large
- This government document is important to my topic because it was the piece of legislation that allowed for the construction of the Interstate Highway system.
- Detroit wins grant to remove interstate that wrecked a Black community
- This newspaper article is significant because it discusses a proposal to revert the I-375 highway that has caused the displacement of thousands during the 1950s into a boulevard.
- Highway to Inequity: The Disparate Impact of the Interstate Highway System on Poor and Minority Communities in American Cities
- In this paper, David Karas examines the negative effects that the construction of the Interstate Highway system has on poor and minority communities in various cities in the United States during the 1950s.
- Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies on Minorities
- In this paper, Thomas Sanchez discusses how the construction of highways can contribute to disparities in economic opportunities available to people from marginalized communities as they have to rely on the transit system due to being unable to own cars.
- U.S. Census Bureau. “Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000.”
- The data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau allows us to compare and contrast how the city of Detroit has changed in 50 years.
- 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Characteristics of the Population of the Detroit, Mich., Standard Metropolitan Area
- This Census report serves as a benchmark to give a view of the city of Detroit prior to the construction of major highways.
- The Detroit Tribune. (Detroit, Mich.) 1935-1966, April 29, 1961, Page 8, Image 8.
- This newspaper article gives insight to how the highways were perceived after their construction.
- An Act To Amend the Federal-Aid Highway Acts of 1956 and 1958 to Make Certain Adjustments in the Federal-Aid Highway Program, and for Other Purposes. U.S. Statutes at Large. N.p., 1959. Print.
- Duncan, Ian. “Detroit Wins Grant to Remove Interstate That Wrecked a Black Community.” The Washington post 2022: n. pag. Print.
- Karas, David. “Highway to inequity: the disparate impact of the interstate highway system on poor and minority communities in American cities.” New Visions for Public Affairs 7.April (2015): 9-21.
- Sanchez, Thomas W., Rich Stolz, and Jacinta S. Ma. “Inequitable effects of transportation policies on minorities.” Transportation research record 1885.1 (2004): 104-110.
- U.S. Census Bureau. “Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000.” Explore Census Data, https://data.census.gov/table?q=detroit%2B2000&tid=DECENNIALDPSF32000.DP3.
- 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Characteristics of the Population of the Detroit, Mich., Standard Metropolitan Area: Apr. 1, 1950. Congressional Document. N.p., 1951. Print.
- Humanities, National Endowment for the. “The Detroit Tribune. (Detroit, Mich.) 1935-1966, April 29, 1961, Page 8, Image 8.” News about Chronicling America RSS, Midwest Pub. Co., chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92063852/1961-04-29/ed-1/seq-8/#date1=1777&index=0&rows=20&words=Beautification+Highways+More+Need+Super&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1963&proxtext=Super+Highways+Need+More+Beautification&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1.
- Lawrence, Eric D. “I-375 Replacement Project in Detroit Moves Closer to Reality, Gets Ok from Feds.” Detroit Free Press, Detroit Free Press, 17 Mar. 2022, www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2022/03/17/interstate-375-replacement-detroit-black-bottom-paradise-valley/7073405001/.